16 The survival status of each patient was confirmed by independe

16 The survival status of each patient was confirmed by independent sources. Another feature of this study was the effort made to ensure the accuracy of exposure information (e.g. reproductive, gynecological, and hormone factors), which were collected high throughput screening compounds by face-to-face interviews with the patients during 1999–2000 and recorded as baseline information. Clinical data on cancer stage, histologic type, grade, cytology, and regime of chemotherapy were sought from medical records in the participating hospitals. Test-retest results

of survivors and their next of kin confirmed the reproducibility of the questionnaire and the reliability of next of kin’s proxy report. The associations between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer survival found in the study might be a chance occurrence because of the modest sample size, or misleading due to the inclusion of borderline malignancy. However, the observed association was strong and similar results were obtained

in separate analyses of the women with invasive diseases only and all participants together. In the present study there Trametinib was a significant adverse influence of previous tubal ligation on survival of ovarian cancer, which may be associated with a higher proportion of serous carcinoma in the patients with tubal ligation compare with those who had no tubal ligation. These findings have biological plausibility, being supported by evidence from experiments studies. Future studies are required to examine the relationship between ovarian cancer survival and tubal ligation to fully understand the complex effects of tubal ligation on the incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer. The authors acknowledge with gratitude the participation of patients in Hangzhou. We are grateful for the collaboration received from the participating hospitals and their staff. In particular, we thank Chief Pathologist Chen Xiao Duan of Dolutegravir cost Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University,

for her kind assistance. “
“Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) is a rare disease which is classified into high- and low-risk groups. While the high-risk patients require combination therapy, the low-risk groups respond to single-agent chemotherapy. We studied resistance to single-agent chemotherapy and its risk factors among the low-risk GTN patients in Iran. We followed 168 low-risk GTN patients who were treated between 2001 and 2011 in Valiasr Hospital, Tehran, Iran. We used a case–control design and studied odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate association between drug resistance and different personal and clinical variables. Resistance to sequential single-agent chemotherapy was 19%, although all patients had a complete remission after a combination of chemotherapy and/or surgery.

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