1-2) It was also shown in an epidemiological study conducted in

1-2). It was also shown in an epidemiological study conducted in Japan that CKD is a risk factor for CVD development and death, NSC23766 cost establishing CKD as an important syndrome that jeopardizes the health of Japanese people (Figs. 1-3, 1-4). Fig. 1-2 Relative risks for death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization by kidney function (GFR). The results shown are taken from an epidemiologic survey on the incidence of death, cardiovascular event, and hospitalization by kidney function in people insured by the HMO Insurance Kaiser Permanente. A total of 112,000 people 20 years

PND-1186 ic50 of age or older (mean observation period 2.84 years, mean age 52 years, male to female ratio 9:11) were surveyed. Relative risk of death in total (per 100 Selleck Sotrastaurin patients per year), relative risk of cardiovascular event (per 100 patients per year), and relative risk of hospitalization in total (per 100 patients per year) were corrected for age. The data reported are taken, with modification, from Go et al. (N Engl J Med 2004;351:1296–1305) Fig. 1-3 Relative risk of death from cardiovascular events according to the presence or

absence of proteinuria and kidney function level. The relative risk was regarded as 1.0 for the group of participants in the general health examination. There were 30,704 male and 60,668 female participants aged 40–79 years, having GFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and no proteinuria. The data reported are taken, with modification, from Irie et al. (Kidney Int 2005;69:1264–1271). The value of GFR 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 cited in this paper corresponds to about 53 mL/min/1.73 m2 as calculated by the estimation formula for GFR devised for Japanese people Fig. 1-4 The incidence of cardiovascular disease and its relative risk in relation to the presence or absence of CKD (from the Hisayama Study). Hisayama medroxyprogesterone Study: age 40 years and over, men 1,110, women 1,524, follow-up 12 years (1988–2000),

excluded those with history of stroke or acute myocardial infarction. CKD (+) denotes GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. a A cumulative incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) [data taken from Ninomiya T et al. Sogo Rinsho 2006;55:1248–1254]. b Relative risks [data taken, with modification, from Ninomiya T et al. Kidney Int 2005;68:228–236] Tasks for CKD management in Japan As mentioned above, CKD is critical among the groups of illnesses threatening the nation’s health, and there is a need for the whole nation to cope with CKD. There are four aspects of the task of promoting CKD management efficiently and continually as outlined in the following: (1) To research the actual conditions of CKD in order to collect epidemiological data on risk factors for CKD, comorbidities, and prognoses. To develop a Japanese formula to estimate GFR that is tailored for Japanese people.

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