Soil moisture field measurements and MODIS images of relevant
dates have been acquired. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) are calculated from MODIS images. In addition, MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data (MOD11A1) are used in this analysis. Four different soil moisture estimation models, which are based on NDVI-LST, EVI-LST, NDVI-LST-NDWI and EVI-LST-NDWI, are developed and their accuracies are assessed. Statistical analysis shows that replacing EVI with NDVI in the model that is based on LST and NDVI increases the accuracy of soil moisture estimation. Luminespib order Accuracy evaluation of soil moisture estimation using check points shows that the model based on LST, EVI and NDWI values gives a higher accuracy than that based on LST and EVI values. It is concluded that the model based on the three indices is a suitable model to estimate soil moisture through MODIS imagery.”
growth patterns in eight species of herons and egrets (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae). Avian postnatal growth has received considerable attention and its ecological implications have been deeply analyzed. In this current paper. I describe the patterns see more of culmen and tarsus growth, as well as of weight gain patterns in eight species of herons and egrets (Ayes: Ardeidae) found in the Birama Swamp in Eastern Cuba. Between 1998 and 2006,714 nestlings of the following species were measured every two days: Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis, Egretta thula, E. tricolor, E. caerulea, E. rufescens, Ardea alba and Nycticorax nycticorax. Logistic and Gompertz equations were adjusted to data using non-lineal regression models with adult values as the asymptote. For each species, the following were determined
and recorded: growth rate, age at inflexion, instantaneous growth rates at each age interval, and time taken to reach 90% of adult size. Reported MEK162 chemical structure hatchling sizes were similar in other localities, with a variation coefficient ranging between 10-19%. At hatch, each species exhibited differing sizes relative to adult values. In all cases, Gompertz equations were best fitted to explain more variance and lesser residuals. Rates of weight change and tarsus growth were alometrically related to the log of adult weight. Two main growth processes were identified: a physical extension in dimensions of each measurement reflecting inter-specific morphometric differences, and a lineal increase of the growth period from Green Heron to Great Egret. The Black-crowned Night Heron, Cattle Egret and Reddish Egret exhibited some unique measurement characteristics in comparison to the remaining members of the family. All results support the hypothesis that hypermorphosis, as the main evolutionary process in the microevolution of Ardeidae, is caused by a delayed final moment of growth. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59(2): 771-787. Epub 2011 June 01.