Farlow et al developed a typing assay based on the variable-numb

Farlow et al. developed a typing assay based on the variable-number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) [12] and Johansson et al. also described a twenty-five VNTR marker typing system that was used to determine the worldwide genetic relationship among

F. tularensis isolates [1]. Byström Ilomastat concentration et al. selected six of these 25 markers that were highly discriminatory in a study of tularemia in Denmark [13]. Vogler et al. [14] investigated the BIIB057 manufacturer phylogeography of F. tularensis in an extensive study based on whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. From almost 30,000 SNPs identified among 13 whole genomes 23 clade- and subclade-specific canonical SNPs were identified and used to genotype 496 isolates. This study was expanded upon in another check details study that used a combination of insertion/deletions

(INDELs) and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis [15]. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular epidemiology of F. tularensis in European brown hares in Germany between 2005 and 2010. Several previously published typing markers were selected and combined in a pragmatic approach to test whether they are suitable to elucidate the spread of tularemia in Germany. This included cultivation, susceptibility testing to erythromycin, a PCR assay for subspecies differentiation detecting Sclareol a 30

bp deletion in the Ft-M19 locus, VNTR typing, INDEL, SNP, and MALDI-TOF analysis. This is important because it improves our understanding of the spread of tularemia and may help to recognize outbreaks that are not of natural origin. Results Cultivation and identification of isolates Cultivation of bacteria from organ specimens was successful in 31 of 52 hares which had a positive PCR result targeting the locus Ft-M19 that was also used to differentiate F. tularensis subsp. holarctica from other F. tularensis subsp. [11]. F. tularensis subsp. holarctica was identified in all 52 cases. Biovars Seventeen isolates were susceptible to erythromycin corresponding to biovar I, whereas fourteen were resistant (biovar II). The geographic distribution is given in Table 1, Figure 1 and the susceptibility of the isolates in Additional file 1: Table S2. Table 1 Original and geographic data of Francisella tularensis subsp.

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