9% (39) ▪ shift
to an abnormal microflora – grade I-like – - grade II 7.1% (3) – grade III – - grade IV – all samples with an L. gasseri/iners TRF (n = 83) ▪ sustained grade I microflora 85.5% (71) ▪ shift to an abnormal microflora – grade I-like 6.0% (5) – grade II 7.2% (6) – grade III 1.2% (1) – grade IV – Gram stained vaginal smears were scored according find more to the criteria previously described by Verhelst et al . Briefly, Gram-stained vaginal smears were categorized as grade I (normal) when only Lactobacillus cell types were present, as grade II (intermediate) when both Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated cell types were present, as grade III (bacterial vaginosis) when bacterial vaginosis-associated cell types were abundant in the absence of lactobacilli, as grade Selleck AZD6738 IV when only gram-positive cocci were observed, and as grade I-like when irregularly shaped or curved gram-positive rods were predominant . For the purpose of this study, grade I or Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microflora is designated as ‘normal vaginal microflora’ and all other grades as ‘abnormal vaginal microflora’. Summary of the association between normal microflora type and vaginal microflora status on follow-up Overall, in this cohort, normal VMF at baseline examination shifted to an abnormal VMF on follow-up
at a rate of 16.9%, whereby – according to Gram stain – 92.3% of Selleck Verteporfin these cases were associated with a departure from grade Ib VMF and – according to tRFLP and culture – 92.3% of these cases Anlotinib involved a departure from grade I VMF comprising
L. gasseri/iners. Conversely, the presence of L. crispatus even when accompanied by the other Lactobacillus species, L. jensenii, L. gasseri and/or L. iners, emerged as a prominent stabilising factor to the vaginal microflora. In particular, normal VMF comprising L. gasseri/iners incurred a ten-fold increased risk of conversion to abnormal VMF relative to non-L. gasseri/iners VMF (RR 10.41, 95% CI 1.39–78.12, p = 0.008), whereas normal VMF comprising L. crispatus had a five-fold decreased risk of conversion to abnormal VMF relative to non-L. crispatus VMF (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05–0.89, p = 0.04). Of importance is that, while on the one hand it was observed that L. jensenii and L. gasseri/iners tended to disappear at a significantly higher rate over time (i.e. displaying poorer colonisation strength) as compared to L. crispatus, and on the other hand that L. jensenii and in particular L. gasseri/iners were associated with a much higher risk of conversion from normal to abnormal VMF (i.e. displaying poorer colonisation resistance), these phenomena did not seem to be interrelated, i.e. conversion to abnormal VMF is mostly accompanied by the persistence rather than the disappearance of the Lactobacillus index species. Hence, it appears as if L. jensenii and L. gasseri/iners in particular, elicit in comparison to L.