9 ± 2 5 to 35 2 ± 4 9 %Std, p < 001) and Cereal (18 6 ± 2 2

9 ± 2.5 to 35.2 ± 4.9 %Std, p < .001) and Cereal (18.6 ± 2.2

to 35.4 ± 4.4 %Std, p < .01); however, there was no significant LY3023414 ic50 difference in the mean change in phosphorylation between treatments (p = .911). eIF4E Phosphorylation of eIF4E did not differ between treatments immediately post exercise (Figure 6). After 60 minutes, eIF4E phosphorylation decreased but not significantly for either Drink (84.6 ± 6.4 to 78.1 ± 6.8 %Std, p = .284) or Cereal (79.8 ± 4.5 to 71.7 ± ,6.9 %Std p = .250). There was no significant difference in the mean change in phosphorylation between treatments (p = .856). Correlations At 60 minutes after treatment (Post60), glycogen was correlated with phosphorylated glycogen synthase for Drink (r = .771, p < .01) and Cereal (r = .789, p < .01). At Post60, Akt was correlated with mTOR for Drink (r = .716, p < .01) but not Cereal BI2536 (r = .052, p = .872). No other meaningful correlations were obtained. Discussion While both a 100% whole grain cereal and nonfat milk (Cereal) and 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (Drink) increased glycogen following moderate

exercise, significant phosphorylation of mTOR and AKT only occurred after Cereal. Prior research has focused on comparing the effects of carbohydrate and carbohydrate-protein post-exercise supplementation on either glycogen [13, 28, 29] or protein [7, 14] synthesis after exercise. Our research examined the effects of readily available foods on glycogen synthesis and the phosphorylation state of proteins controlling protein synthesis after a typical cycling endurance workout. After endurance exercise, glycogen is reduced and protein synthesis increased; however, the rate of protein degradation exceeds protein synthesis [1, 7]. Recovery foods that target either glycogen this website storage or protein synthesis fantofarone can potentially affect

future exercise performance by compromising muscle protein or energy stores, respectively. Reduction in glycogen, increased glycogen synthase activity, and increased insulin sensitivity prime the muscle for glycogen synthesis post exercise; however, glucose substrate must be available to support glycogen accretion [9, 19, 30]. Although protein synthesis also increases after resistance and endurance exercise, without substrate, net protein balance is not positive, only less negative [6, 7]. Food containing essential amino acids (EAAs) must be consumed to achieve a positive net protein balance [4] and insulin must also be present [31–33]. In our research, the carbohydrate in Drink supplied substrate for glycogen storage, but Cereal provided carbohydrate and EAAs necessary to support both glycogen and protein synthesis (Table 2). As expected, insulin secretion during recovery was higher for Cereal compared to Drink, possibly due to the amino acids in the nonfat milk [13, 34].

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