690 18 150 ± 9 037 17 11 375 ± 5 870 8 750 ± 5 358 86 800 ± 53 67

690 18.150 ± 9.037 17 11.375 ± 5.870 8.750 ± 5.358 86.800 ± 53.677 12.250 ± 4.793 6.125 ± 2.396 RANGE 5.375 – 34.475 4.303 – 35.750 31.500 – 210.600 8.290 – 49.700 2.734 – 34.400 Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. MIC values observed for ATCC bacterial VS-4718 cost strains fell into the same platelet concentration ranges as those of the corresponding clinical isolates. MBC tests showed that C. albicans was never killed by P-PRP, while the other microorganisms were killed at concentrations 3–4 times the MIC. Discussion The regenerative potential of PCs has been explored considerably during the last two decades.

On the contrary, in the available literature only few reports can be found about their antimicrobial effects. To date, the components responsible for the antimicrobial activity of PCs remain poorly understood, in particular AUY-922 research buy because these materials are a complex mixture of platelets, white blood cells and plasma. The respective impact of the plasma and cellular components has not been studied in detailyet. Several antimicrobial factors

have been proposed, including platelet antimicrobial proteins and peptides of the innate immune defense, or platelet α-granules components, such as complement and complement-binding proteins. [17, 21–26] Direct interaction of platelets with microorganisms and participation in antibody-dependent cell cytotocity and white blood cells in direct bacterial killing, release of myeloperoxidas, activation of the antioxidant responsive element and antigen-specific immune response have also been suggested. [12, 15, 27] The role of leucocytes within PCs is a matter of intense debate. Some authors have suggested that inclusion of white blood cells Tideglusib in PCs may help to improve the stability of the scaffold and increase the antimicrobial potential. [18] However, Anitua

et al. [20] results showed that a further leucocyte dose did not significantly improve the antimicrobial properties of P-PRP. It is also possible that the additional leukocyte content might increase the inflammatory response at the site because of the metalloproteases, pro-inflammatory proteases and acid hydrolases secreted by white blood cells [28]. Bacterial PIK3C2G infection is one of the most serious complications impairing wound healing and tissue regeneration. Even when applying strict disinfection, bacteria can infiltrate and colonize the underlying tissues of the wound. The combination of proteolytic enzymes, toxin-rich bacterial exudates and chronic inflammation can alter growth factors and metalloproteinases, thereby affecting the cellular machinery needed for cell proliferation and wound healing [29, 30]. Developing approaches and strategies that may help to control or prevent the problem of wound infections would have considerable clinical, social and economic effects. Our study has shown that P-PRP was active against microorganisms colonizing the oral cavity such as E. faecalis, C. albicans, S. agalactiae and S. oralis, but not against P.

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