32* -0 19 -0 27 –       Testing on doping 0 67* 0 25 0 31* -0 47*

32* -0.19 -0.27 –       Testing on doping 0.67* 0.25 0.31* -0.47* –     Doping in sailing 0.30 0.04 0.08 -0.15 -0.21 –   Penalties for doping 0.13 -0.03 0.07 0.10 0.12 -0.21 – Doping likelihood -0.04 0.16 0.16 -0.04 0.19 -0.05 -0.18 LEGEND: * denotes significant correlation coefficients at p < 0.05. A logistic regression analysis reveals that “crew number” is

the single significant predictor of DS usage among the factors, and this single-variable model is the only significant logistic model built (p < 0.05). The model NVP-BSK805 supplier (Y = -1.042 + 1.841 * X) successfully classified 67% DS users and 32% DS nonusers, indicating that single crews as more inclined to DS usage (OR: 1.4-2.2). Discussion In the following text we will discuss the findings we have judged to be the most important with regard to study aims and topics that have not been previously investigated (i.e., types of DSs consumed, opinions about doping in sailing).

Therefore, the discussion will focus on DS use habits in conjunction with DS-related factors and doping likelihood. Our data revealing that 70% of sailing athletes are DS users support figures of other studies which have reported that the percentage of supplement users ranges from 60% to 93% [22–26, 44, 45]. Therefore, although the previous studies did not assess DS use the way we did (i.e., previous studies examined DS habits on a nominal “yes-no” scale, while we used a ordinal scale; see the tables for more learn more details), our findings that Selleckchem MAPK inhibitor 38% of athletes used DSs occasionally and an additional 38% used them regularly are among the highest reported prevalence of DS use among athletes. Given the characteristics of sailing

and the associated training and competition (see Introduction and following text for details), such a relatively high incidence is expected. The reasons why vitamins, minerals and selleck isotonic (electrolyte) drinks are consumed in most cases, and why most athletes use them regularly, are related to the characteristics of the sport of sailing. Both competitions and training of sailing often last for more than 5 hours. The athletes are regularly far away from the coast, and they wear sailing suits made of neoprene and latex materials that do not allow regular perspiration. It has already been noted that most of the sailing athletes are in a negative fluid balance after racing (mean loss for males: – 2.1%; for females: – 0.9%) [14]. In addition, Croatia is a Mediterranean country with a temperature ranging from 15 to 30 degrees Celsius (from March through the end of September, when most sailing occurs), and it is clear that adequate rehydration is difficult to achieve without isotonic drinks. Because hot-cold and dry-wet changes are common (i.e., weather conditions can change considerably during a single training session) and frequent travel is required (i.e.

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