2, at which point

2, at which point Rucaparib molecular weight isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) was added to a final concentration of 0.5 mM and the cultures were incubated for an additional 12 h. For the expression

of all other sPBPs, overnight cultures were grown at 26 °C to an A600 nm of 1.0 (stationary phase), at which time IPTG was added to a final concentration of 0.1 mM and the cultures were incubated for an additional 8 h. Cells were harvested at 5000 g for 10 min (Beckman Avanti™ J25I, Fullerton, CA), and the cell pellets were collected and resuspended in lysis buffer (400 μg mL−1 lysozyme, 50 mM Tris-HCl, 200 mM NaCl, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, pH 7.5) for 5 h at 4 °C with occasional stirring. Gross cell debris was removed by centrifugation at 8000 g (Eppendorf 5810 R, Hamburg, Germany) for 10 min at 4 °C, and membrane vesicles were removed from the resulting supernatant by ultracentrifugation at 100 000 g for 1 h at 4 °C (Sorvall Ultra Pro 80, Medcompare, San Francisco, CA). sPBPs were purified from this final supernatant by ampicillin affinity chromatography, as described (Nicholas & Strominger, 1988), with slight modifications. sPBP supernatants were incubated with ampicillin-coupled activated CH-Sepharose 4B (Amersham Biosciences, Piscataway, NJ) for 1 h at 30 °C. The resin was washed selleck kinase inhibitor once with 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, containing 1 M NaCl, and then washed once more with the same buffer lacking NaCl.

The resin-bound PBPs were eluted with 1 M NH2OH and 0.5 M Tris-HCl, pH 7.0 (Nicholas & Strominger, 1988). The purified PBP fractions (1.5 mL) were pooled and dialyzed against 20 mM Tris-HCl and 150 mM NaCl, pH 7.5, with three changes of buffer. Protein concentrations 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase were determined using the Bradford assay kit (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO). The activity of each purified sPBP was determined by labeling with 50 μM BOCILLIN FL (Invitrogen Inc., Carlsbad, CA) (Zhao et al., 1999). Reaction mixtures were incubated for 30 min at 35 °C, after which the proteins were denatured by adding 10 μL of denaturing solution to the reaction mixture and boiling for an additional 3 min. The proteins

were separated and analyzed by electrophoresis through 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels. Labeled PBPs were visualized by washing the gel twice with deionized water and scanning immediately using a Typhoon Trio variable imager (Amersham Biosciences) at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm and an emission wavelength of 526 nm. The Far UV CD spectra of each soluble protein were determined using a Jasco J-810 spectropolarimeter (Easton, MD), placing the samples in a quartz cell (path length=0.2 cm) at 25 °C. Spectral data of sPBPs (2.5 μM) were collected with a 0.2 nm step resolution, 1 s time constant and 10 millidegrees sensitivity at a 2.0 nm spectral bandwidth, with a scanning speed of 50 nm min−1.

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