Stocks are placed in these hospitals and consumption and expiration GDC-0068 order dates are checked twice a year by WHO. WHO keeps an emergency stock of drugs at its headquarters in
Geneva, whereas for regular distribution to major DECs in need of large amounts, WHO has the collaboration of Médecins Sans Frontières Logistique (Bordeaux, France), which provides storage facilities and shipment services. Drugs are shipped either by express courier, by air or boat depending on the urgency and circumstances. During the period 2000 to 2010, 94 HAT cases diagnosed in non-DECs were reported. Seventy-two percent of them corresponded to the Rhodesiense form of the disease (Table 2), whereas 28% corresponded to the Gambiense form (Table 3). Among Rhodesiense HAT cases, 82% were diagnosed in first stage and 18% were diagnosed in second stage. Among Gambiense HAT cases, 23% cases were diagnosed in first stage,
while 77% were diagnosed in second stage. Ninety-three percent of the HAT Rhodesiense cases diagnosed were foreigners traveling to endemic areas for a short period of time. This category includes tourists (60) and soldiers (2). Rangers working in wildlife areas make up the remaining 7%. Forty-two percent of the HAT Gambiense cases diagnosed were expatriates living in endemic phosphatase inhibitor library countries for extended periods, mostly for business, including forest activities (9), but also as staff of the United Nations (1) or as religious missionaries (1). Fifty-eight percent were nationals from DECs, living in the non-DEC of diagnosis for political reasons [ie, refugees from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and from Sudan although based Acyl CoA dehydrogenase in Uganda (5)] or for economic reasons [ie, migrants from DRC (3), Cameroon (3), Angola (2), and Equatorial Guinea (2)]. HAT cases were diagnosed in non-DECs
in the five continents (Figure 1). Forty-three percent of the cases were diagnosed in Europe and 23% in North America. South Africa is the non-DEC diagnosing the highest number of Rhodesiense HAT imported cases, 37% of the total. This is probably due to its proximity to DECs with famed protected areas and game reserves (GR), but also because it often represents the first step in health care seeking for acute health problems in south and east African countries. In the second line are countries that hold historical or economic links with DECs and whose citizens travel more often to DECs for tourism. These include the United States (25% of cases) and the UK (15% of cases). Other European countries account for 18% of cases [The Netherlands (5), Belgium (2), Italy (2), Sweden (1), Norway (1), Germany (1), Poland (1)]. Finally, 5% of the remaining cases were diagnosed in India, Brazil, and Israel.