No cysts for Cryptosporidium or Cyclospora were seen. PCR showed no DNA of Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Cryptosporidium species, or Entamoeba species. Chest radiography and
electrocardiography showed no abnormalities. http://www.selleckchem.com/erk.html At admission the patient received fluid replacement therapy and—awaiting test results—was treated with metronidazole. This resulted in a rapid decrease of bowel movements to watery stool once a day and decreased stomach complaints. After receiving test results, treatment was switched to mebendazol (100 mg 3 times a day) for 3 days to treat the hookworm infection. This resulted in a prompt decrease of the eosinophilia to 4.1 × 109/L after 3 days and to 0.57 × 109/L several months later at the outpatients clinic. The latter was similar to eosinophilia concentrations determined
in 2008 that were ascribed to the allergic state of the patient. With treatment of the hookworm, the watery stool once daily also returned to normal. The LH and B hominis infections were left untreated because of the improvement of symptoms and self-limiting Selleck AZD6244 character of these infections. The patient’s neurological symptoms however persisted after discharge from the hospital. The ulnaropathy improved in several weeks without treatment. The patient requested neurological consultation several months after discharge for impaired motor skills. At this point, he reported impairments in his fine motor Teicoplanin skills of both his hands while drinking coffee or rolling a cigarette. He also complained of a decreased feeling of control and strength in both his legs. This could again not be objectified in a neurological examination. Owing to claustrophobia a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain could not be performed. Instead, a non-contrast computed tomography (CT) was executed 8 weeks after admittance to the hospital. The scan showed multiple hypodensities in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres (centrum semi ovale), as well as at the level of the basal ganglia, suggestive of (micro-) infarction
(Figure 2). The patient was infected with three microorganisms associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. However, his persistent diarrhea and neurological symptoms did not fit any of the typical presentations of these three pathogens. The symptoms combined with the high eosinophilia do however resemble the clinical course seen with a hypereosinophilic syndrome. This syndrome is associated with multiple organ impairment and eosinophilia of more than 1.5 × 109/L. Similar eosinophilic toxicity has also been described in high eosinophilia during the acute, invasive stages of other helminth infections, such as with strongyloides and schistosomiasis.[4, 6] This type of reaction is more often seen during infections primarily related to the digestive tract, such as Schistosoma mansoni, less frequent with Schistosoma haematobium.