83 They stimulate absorption of water

83 They stimulate absorption of water see more and electrolytes and thereby prevent diarrhea.83 Colonic acidification by SCFA may increase its motility.85 In contrast, motility of proximal gut by SCFA is reduced due to induction of the ileal brake;84 as a result, reduced proximal gut motility may predispose to SIBO. Bacteria in the small intestine in patients with SIBO produce SCFA and deconjugate bile acids.86 These may contribute to diarrhea in patients with SIBO. Bacterial fermentation and production of various gases may contribute to the pathogenesis IBS and its symptoms. A study by Pimentel et al. from the USA reported

that 12 (39%) of 31 constipation-predominant IBS patients excreted methane, whereas none of 34 diarrhea-predominant patients were methane excreters.87 This led to a hypothesis that

methane gas produced by bacteria may contribute to the development of constipation in patients with IBS.88 In dogs, luminal methane infusion compared with room air infusion significantly reduced intestinal transit.17 Exposing tissues to methane also increased the force of contractions in response to mucosal stimulation; the authors therefore suggested that methane predisposes to constipation via promotion of segmental, non-propagating contractions.17 In a study in guinea pigs, the amplitude of peristaltic contraction was significantly decreased when hydrogen was infused, whereas it was significantly RAD001 increased in the methane infusion group.89 Further, peristaltic velocity was significantly delayed after methane infusion.89 The area under curve of intra-luminal pressure was also markedly increased after infusion of methane. These results support the concept that methane promotes non-propagating or segmental contractions of the selleck inhibitor small bowel. This study provides an experimental basis for verifying that there

is a significant correlation between methane producers and constipation-predominant IBS.89 Some authors have hypothesized that methanogenic flora may reduce flatulence; as one molecule of carbon dioxide combines with four molecules of hydrogen to produce one molecule of methane, it may result in reduction of total volume of gas in the gut.58 In an Indian study, predominant methanogenic flora (fasting methane concentration > 10 ppm) was present in 50/345 (14.5%) patients with IBS diagnosed by Rome II criteria as compared with 88/254 (34.6%) of healthy controls.58 These studies suggest that the gut flora and the gas produced by it may play a role in the pathogenesis of IBS symptoms, but more studies are needed to resolve this issue. Neuroendocrine factors are important mechanisms of control of sensorimotor functions by the gut flora. Ileal brake is a physiological phenomenon, in which the presence of fat or products of its digestion such as fatty acids reduces motility of proximal small intestine.

plates belong to the A-shaped category Generally, A-shaped sa

plates belong to the A-shaped category. Generally, A-shaped s.a. plates Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor were more common in groups 1 and 2 and door-latch-shaped

s.a. plates in groups 5 and 6, though each shape was found in every group (Table 3). For example, while most strains of group 1 had >70% A-shaped s.a. plates, 80% of the s.a. plates in strains AOKAL0909 and ASBH01were door-latch shaped. Similarly, group 6 isolates primarily exhibited door-latch s.a. plates whereas >70% of cells in strains AONOR4 and IMPLBA033 had A- shaped s.a. plates. Significant differences in the frequencies of diagnostic s.a. shapes were only detected between groups 2 and 5, with group 2 having significantly more (P = 0.016) A-shaped s.a. plates. Many of the A-shaped s.a. plates found in Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor strains of group 1 were rounded (Fig. 7, B and C). The width to height (W/H) ratios of the s.a. plate varied within and among strains (Fig. 8; Table 3). However, despite the large ranges within groups, the W/H ratios in groups 1 and 2 were on average significantly lower than those observed in groups 5 and 6 (Fig. 8; P < 0.05). Though significantly different, the group 6 s.a. W/H ratios appeared intermediate between groups 1 and 2 and group 5 (Fig. 8). Width and height measurements of the 6″ plate revealed variable W/H ratios within and among

strains (Table 3). Extremes were found in group 1, where strain AOKAL0909 consistently had large W/H ratios and strain ASBH01 – exhibited uniformly low W/H ratios. Overall, the 6″ plate W/H ratios were generally lower in groups 1 and 2 compared to groups 5 and 6 (Fig. 9; P < 0.001). Of all strains analyzed for PSP toxins and spirolides, only AOPC1 from Saanich Inlet, Canada, did not contain measurable amounts find more of PSTs or spirolides. While all strains of group 1 contained PSP toxins, IMPLBA033 was the only PST producer of groups 2, 5, and 6 (Table 4). The Baltic strains produced only GTX2/3 and STX, whereas additional analogs C1/C2 and B1 were detected in the estuarine strains from the U.S. East coast. The Chinese Isolate contained NEO in addition to STX. High amounts of GTX2/3 and STX were found in the Peruvian isolate. Spirolides were measured in isolates from

all analyzed groups (Fig. 10). In group 1, only the U.S. East coast strains contained spirolides. These, as well as all group 2 isolates produced predominantly (>99%) 13dmC spirolide. The group 2 isolates also produced low amounts of 13,19ddmC (UK isolates) and spirolide A (UK and Spanish strains). Group 5 strains produced a mixture of different spirolides, primarily spirolides A (Gulf of Maine strains) and C (AOIS4 from Iceland). In group 6, the North Sea strains contained considerable amounts of spirolides, mainly 20mG and G. The main exception was AONOR4 which produced mostly 13,19ddmC and CCAP1119/47 which had significant amounts of spirolide A in addition to G. All group 6 strains contained small proportions of other spirolide forms.

Two groups were observed in patients with anal flatus

Two groups were observed in patients with anal flatus Everolimus and defecation time, recovery time of bowel sounds, and CRP and serum amylase change of patients in two groups. Results: The two groups was not statistically significant in patients with CRP and serum amylase change difference (P > 0.05), and the anus to exhaust defecation time, recovery time of bowel sounds there were

significant differences (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The use of probiotics in the treatment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis patients, can significantly improve the intestinal function, reduce infection and other complications, worthy of clinical application. Key Word(s): 1. probiotics; 2. acute pancreatitis; 3. intestinal function; Presenting Author: LINGYINGCHEN JIN-SONG FENG ZHI-SONG Corresponding Author: LINGYINGCHEN JIN-SONG FENG ZHI-SONG Affiliations: Affiliated Selleck INCB018424 HDspital of North Shichuan Medical College Objective: To investigate the effect of Chai shao cheng qi Decoction to inflammation mediators of severe acute pancreatitis. Methods: A total of 30 severe acute pancreatitis patients (SAP) were randomly divided into two groups. One group (western medicine group) was

treated by western medicine only. Another group (integrated tcm-wm group) was treated by combination of western medicine (wm) and traditional chinese medicine (tcm). Ten healthy volunteers used as control group. Venous blood of all SAP groups and the control group was collected at the time selleck chemical on admission (1d) and

after admission 3d, 5d and 7d. Double-antibody sandwich ELISA assay was used to detect the levels of serum IL-6(Interleukin-6), IL-15(Interleukin-15) and MIF (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor). At the same time, we observed the time of clinical symptom improvement. Results: The serum concentration of IL-6, IL-15 and MIF of two SAP groups at the time on admission were significant higher than control group (P < 0.05), but there were no significant difference between the two SAP groups (P > 0.05). Serrum levels of IL-6, IL-15 and MIF were all reduced after treatment in two SAP groups, the integrated tcm-wm group were lower than western medicine group. The two groups have a lowest levels at the time of 7d, and have a significant difference between the two SAP groups[IL-6(ng/L): 246.34 ± 86.65 VS 724.88 ± 110.89, IL-15(ng/L): 158.81 ± 50.63 VS 403.04 ± 134.83, MIF(ng/L): 121.90 ± 29.48 VS 240.60 ± 67.36, P < 0.05]. The serrum levels of IL-6 and IL-15 in integrated tcm-wm group at each time point were significant lower than western medicine group (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of MIF in integrated tcm-wm group were significant lower than western medicine group after admission 5d and 7d (P < 0.05).

Visual snow” (VS) is a disabling disorder with patients complaini

Visual snow” (VS) is a disabling disorder with patients complaining about TV-snow-like tiny flickering dots in the entire visual field. The symptoms can be continuous and might persist over years. In a recent study, almost all patients

with VS had additional visual symptoms, such as palinopsia, entoptic phenomena (floaters, blue field entoptic phenomenon, and others), nyctalopia (impaired night vision), photophobia, and tinnitus suggesting that VS is likely a clinical syndrome.[5] In our study population, the majority of patients with VS had comorbid migraine Selleck LY294002 (58%), and 31% had typical migraine aura. This high comorbidity, when compared with the general population,[14] has led to the assumption that VS might represent persistent migraine aura as often discussed in the initial case series,1-3 although the clinical presentation is clearly different from typical migraine aura.[5] Here, we sought to understand whether the VS syndrome manifests differently in patients with migraine or typical aura. For that, a cohort of VS patients was

carefully phenotyped in respect to the clinical presentation and comorbidities. We found that VS patients, who also have migraine according to International Classification of Headache Disorders – 2nd edition[6] had a significantly higher likelihood of having palinopsia, photophobia, nyctalopia, and tinnitus. Of the entoptic phenomena, ie, visual perceptions arising from the optic apparatus itself,[7] only spontaneous photopsia was more prevalent SCH772984 solubility dmso in VS patients

with migraine history, while floaters, blue field entoptic phenomenon, and self-light of the eye were equally distributed. Three major conclusions might be drawn from this: First, the presence of migraine might aggravate the manifestation of the VS syndrome by worsening some, but not all additional click here visual symptoms. Second, our study population was recruited via a self-help group, and it is possible that patients with a more severe clinical manifestation are more eager to participate in a research study. Therefore, a more severe manifestation of the VS syndrome in migraineurs indicates that the high prevalence of migraine in our VS study population might be subject to a selection bias suggesting that the relevance of migraine for VS pathophysiology might be overrated as well. In contrast, the presence of typical migraine aura, ie, the putative correlate of cortical spreading depression[15] that presents with a homonymous, centrifugally moving scintillating scotoma shaped in zigzag lines,[16, 17] does not substantially alter the distribution of the additional visual symptoms in the VS syndrome. Typical migraine aura may thus not influence the VS phenotype suggesting that the high prevalence of aura is less subject to selection bias than migraine. Although VS is clearly not persistent migraine aura,[5] typical migraine aura might share some pathophysiological background with the VS syndrome.

Sequence analysis of RTD at nucleotide and amino acid levels reve

Sequence analysis of RTD at nucleotide and amino acid levels revealed

a high identity (91.8–97.2% and 91.4–100% respectively) between Iranian and other available isolates in the GenBank. However, in regards to ORF1, a high genetic diversity among Iranian and other known PAV isolates at both amino acid (2–16.9%) and nucleotide (4.1–16.5%) levels were detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis of ORF1, two major groups of BYDV-PAV isolates Ibrutinib chemical structure were distinguished. The Iranian isolates were divided between the two clusters. Our results suggest that the occurrence of two genetically distinct groups of PAV isolates in central and southern Iran, from which according to the ICTV criteria for species demarcation in the family Luteoviridae, four isolates from central parts of the country, qualify for designation as new species. “
“RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR-1) is known to be induced by salicylic acid and is involved in basal resistance in plants against pathogen infection. Transgenic lines of tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) variably silenced for RDR-1 gene were assayed for peroxidase (POX) activity following

a systemic infection with Potato virus Y strain O (PVYo). Guaiacol-POX specific activity increased more than twofold in un-inoculated upper leaves of susceptible tobacco lines silenced for RDR-1, 30 days after inoculation with PVYo relative to the wild type. The number and intensity of POX isozymes in intercellular fluid of leaves showing systemic symptoms varied among the transgenic lines. Transgenic selleck chemicals line R-5-1 susceptible to PVYo infection with much lower accumulation of RDR-1 transcript showed two new POX activity bands compared to R-14-1 line that is moderately suppressed this website for RDR-1. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, RDR-1, MYB1 (transcription factor) and PVYo RNA accumulation levels were assessed. Transgenic lines with a greater degree of susceptibility to the virus infection

exhibited lower levels of transcript accumulation for both RDR-1 and MYB1 genes. These results suggest that down-regulation of RDR-1 transcript can lead to an alteration in expression pattern of defence-related genes such as POX and MYB1 and enhanced accumulation of PVYo in tobacco plants. “
“Bacterial blight (BB) is one of the major diseases that affect rice productivity. In previous studies, BB resistance was transferred to cultivated rice Oryza sativa from wild rice Oryza meyeriana using asymmetric somatic hybridization. One of the resistant hybrid progenies (Y73) has also been shown to possess novel resistance gene(s) different from any of those previously associated with BB resistance. We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for BB resistance in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Y73 and a BB-susceptible cv. IR24.

In addition, they were asked to avoid any other kinds of alcohol

In addition, they were asked to avoid any other kinds of alcohol through the duration of the study and to not drink more than one-half bottle at a time. Thirty-three patients (23 women, 10 men) completed the study. Twenty-nine patients (87.8%) reported a migraine attack on at least one occasion within 12 hours of consuming the wine, and 11 (33.4%) reported migraine attacks after all 4 times in which the wine was consumed. Midostaurin Four patients (12.2%) drank the four wine types and didn’t present any headache attack ( Figure). The triggering power of each

specific wine is shown in Table 2. Tannat is a red wine grape, historically grown in South West France. It is now one of the most prominent grapes grown in Uruguay, where it is considered the “national grape.”[39] It is also grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, and in Italy’s Puglia region, where it is used as a blending grape. In the US states of Maryland and Virginia, there are small experimental plantings of the vine, and plantings in California have increased dramatically in the first years of the 21st century.[41] The Tannat wine is notable for its very high-tannin levels and is often blended with cabernet sauvignon and cabernet franc to soften the astringency and make it

more approachable. In addition, modern wine making has begun utilizing oak aging to help soften the tannins.[42, 43] Now, the wines typically spend about 20 months in oak prior to release. Tannats from Uruguay are particularly high in tannins and depending

on the wine-making techniques may present the highest contents among South Tamoxifen manufacturer selleck compound American red wines.[44, 45] Malbec is a purple grape variety with an inky dark color and robust tannins known as one of the six grapes allowed in the blend of red Bordeaux wine. It needs more sun and heat than either Cabernet Sauvignon or Merlot to mature. It ripens mid-season and can bring very deep color, ample tannin, and a particular plum-like flavor component to add complexity to claret blends. The French plantations of Malbec are now found primarily in Cahors in South West France. It is increasingly celebrated as an Argentine varietal wine and is becoming more widely grown around the world.[46] Also called Auxerrois or Côt Noir in Cahors, called Malbec in Bordeaux, and Pressac in other places, the grape became less popular in Bordeaux after 1956 when frost killed off 75% of the crop. Despite Cahors being hit by the same frost, which devastated the vineyards, Malbec was replanted and continued to be popular in that area where it was mixed with Merlot and Tannat to make dark, full-bodied wines, and more recently has been made into 100% Malbec varietal wines.[47] In Argentina, Malbec becomes softer with a plusher texture and riper tannins. The wines tend to have juicy fruit notes with violet aromas. Malbec grown in the state of Washington tends to be characterized by dark fruit notes and herbal aromas.

All the 9 patients had polyps distributed from stomach to large b

All the 9 patients had polyps distributed from stomach to large bowel, a total of 725 polyps were resected endoscopically. pathological results: 51 cases had been proved to be hamartomatous polyps, 12 cases had adenomatous polyps and 2 cases BGB324 mw had well differentiated

adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: Early diagnosis, early treatment and follow-up of great concern to the patients with PJS. Positive treatment of polyps endoscopically was the main method to improve the long-term outcome of PJS. Key Word(s): 1. P-J syndrome; 2. intestinal polyps; 3. endoscopy; 4. surgical operation; Presenting Author: HAI-FENG LIU Additional Authors: YANG XU, CHENG-GANG ZHANG Corresponding Author: HAI-FENG LIU Affiliations: General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces; Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine; State Key Laboratory of Proteomics. Objective: To quantify expression of TLR4/NF-κB/IL-6

in ulcerative colitis and to investigate its role involving pathological mechanisms. Methods: The ulcerative colitis model was induced by 2, 4, 6-trini-trobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Twenty-four SPF male Balb/c mice were randomly and equally divided into normal control group and model group. Rats were observed body weight changes, gross and histopathological changes. The TLR4 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR; The expression of NF-κB protein was detected by Western-blot; The expression of IL-6 in mice plasma was detected by ELISA method. Results: Compared with normal mice, the ulcerative colitis model with varying degrees of diarrhea and blood in stool, colonic selleck screening library mucosal hyperemia, edema, inflammation, showing a larger ulcer lesions. The ulcerative colitis model colon tissue TLR4 mRNA expression increased; NF-κB protein expression also increased significantly; IL-6 level in serum, model group (47.10 ± 15.72 ng/ml) had a significantly higher than control group (41.48 ± 6.33 ng/ml, P < 0.05). TLR4 mRNA expression, NF-κB protein expression and IL-6 level were significantly selleck chemicals positive correlated (r = 0.79, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In ulcerative

colitis, The expression of TLR4, NF-κB and IL-6 were up-regulated significantly, Activation of TLR4/NF-κB/IL-6 signal pathway may be a important mechanism. Key Word(s): 1. ulcerative colitis; 2. TLR4; 3. NF-κB; 4. IL-6; Presenting Author: HUI DING Corresponding Author: HUI DING Affiliations: Renji Hospital Objective: More than 3/4 of colorectal cancer develops from colorectal adenoma. There is a theory about colorectal cancer’s stage development of “normal epithelium-adenoma-cancer”, DNA methylation plays an important role in it. Folic acid is one-carbon units carrier which impacts DNA methylation. Folate level of colorectal epithelial cell can be reflect by serum folate level accurately. There are about the protective effect of folic acid from randomized trials.

05) And also in the Hpylori positive gastric cancer group, the

05). And also in the H.pylori positive gastric cancer group, the expression of GSK-3β reduced and phosphorylated GSK-3β rose. Conclusion: Expression of GSK-3β decreased and phosphorylated GSK-3β increased in gastric cancer tissues, especially in H.pylori positive patients. The inactivation of GSK-3β is related to the initiation or progression

of gastric cancer. H.pylori may be involved in the inactivation of GSK-3β. Key Word(s): 1. GSK-3β; 2. gastric cancer; 3. helicobacter pylori; Presenting Author: XU YUAN Additional Authors: TANG WEN Corresponding Author: XU YUAN Affiliations: the second affiliated hospital of soochow university Objective: Proton pump inhibitors Doxorubicin research buy (PPIs) are widely

utilized for the treatment of acid-related disorders. All PPIs suppress gastric acid secretion by blocking the gastric acid pump, H+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). Recent studies have demonstrated that long term and high dose use of PPI increased risks of hip fractures. In this study, we have examined the effects of different doses of esomeprazole use of male rats at different time points. Methods: Twenty four 3-month-old male rats were divided into three groups: the control group received the vehicle only, the low-dose esomeprazole group was treated with esomeprazole of 10 mg/kg●d and the high-dose esomeprazole group Selleckchem Sorafenib was treated with esomeprazole of 50 mg/kg●d. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and automatic see more chemistry analysis was conducted to assess total

bone mineral densities (BMDs) and bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), tartate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b) and serum calcium concentration at weeks 0, 8 and 14. Bone histomorphometric analysis was performed to evaluate the structural changes in the femur of rats after sacrifice. Results: The body weight of the high-dose esomeprazole group was suppressed whereas that of the control group increased significantly at week 8. The BMD of the high-dose group decreased dramatically whereas that of the other two groups increased significantly. Serum B-ALP, TRACP 5b and calcium concentrations increased in the high-dose group at week 14. Significant changes in the results were not observed at week 8. Bone histomorphometric analysis showed significantly different bone structures among the three groups. Conclusion: Long term and high dose use of esomeprazole reduces bone mineral density and effects bone metabolism of male rats in a time-dependent manner. Key Word(s): 1. PPIs; 2. bone mineral density; 3. bone metabolism; 4.

More detailed discussion of the issues

More detailed discussion of the issues BGJ398 molecular weight around the radical pair compass can be found in (Rogers & Hore, 2009; Mouritsen & Hore, 2012). What is crucial to this review is, Does it have a role in the navigational map? All the experiments described earlier involved

disrupting the magnetic compass, in no case was there an indication that the radical pair pathway is involved in map navigation. It does not appear that this mechanism detects intensity, nor indeed the polarity of the magnetic field, only inclination (Ritz et al., 2000). In theory, inclination could be used to detect latitude, so there is no reason why the radical pair mechanism could not be involved in the navigational map, but no experiment has tested this hypothesis. This may be due to the fact that it could be challenging to design an experiment that is able to disentangle

the use of the radical pair sense for a compass from Selleck SCH727965 its use in a map. Ferrimagnetic materials are those in which spontaneous magnetization occurs because the magnetic moments of atoms are opposed but unequal. This is seen in iron oxides, including the oldest known magnetic substance, magnetite. Ferrimagnetic material exists in a number of crystalline ‘domains’, including multi, single and supaparamagnetic. Multi domain magnetite has no magnetization, single domain has a permanent magnetic moment whereas superparamagnetic magnetite has a fluctuating magnetic moment, but it can be aligned to an external magnetic field (Kirschvink & Walker, 1985). Based on the discovery that bacteria containing single-domain magnetite passively align to the magnetic field (Blakemore, 1975), and that magnetite is a biogenic material that is widely present in the tissue of a diverse array of organisms, it was proposed that such material could form the basis of a magnetic sense in multicellular organisms

(Yorke, 1979; Kirschvink & Gould, 1981). To test this, it was proposed that the physical properties of the ferrimagnetic material could be used to predict the presence of magnetic material in sensory this website cells in the same way as it had been done in bacteria (Kirschvink, 1982). If ferrimagnetic material was involved in a sensory receptor that detected the Earth’s magnetic field, then a brief strong magnetic pulse that exceeded the coercivity (the magnetic force required to reduce the magnetization of the substance to zero) would re-magnetize the substance in the opposite direction if applied antiparallel to the original magnetization (Fig. 4). For most biogenic magnetite, the strength required to re-magnetize would be 0.1T, 5000 times the strength of the Earth’s magnetic field (Kirschvink & Walker, 1985; Kirschvink et al., 1985). If single-domain magnetite was present it would be re-magnetized, and if used by sensory cells, in theory, would lead to a change in the information the receptor gave.

For individuals found to have Hector’s dolphin haplotypes (“putat

For individuals found to have Hector’s dolphin haplotypes (“putative Hector’s dolphins”), as opposed to the characteristic G of the Maui’s dolphin (see ‘Results’), the subspecies was confirmed and populations of origin were identified using the Bayesian assignment procedures in the programs Structure v2.3.2 (Pritchard et al. 2000, 2010) and GeneClass2 v2.2.2 (Piry et al. 2004). For this, we used a reference data set of genotypes from 10 microsatellite loci in linkage equilibrium

for Maui’s dolphins (n = 87 individuals) and Hector’s dolphins (n = 176 individuals) from across the three regional populations (Hamner et al. 2012). JQ1 supplier Although several loci showed slight departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (Hamner et al. 2012), none were significant across all populations. Simulations by Cornuet et al. (1999) suggest that such slight departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are not likely to influence the result of assignment tests. In Structure, no population information was included for the putative Hector’s dolphins and the “UsePopInfo” option assuming no admixture and correlated allele frequencies was applied to the reference samples to run 106 Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) replicates following a burn-in of 105 for K = 4 populations. A membership coefficient (q) ≥ 0.900 was used as the threshold

for confidently identifying the population of origin. This threshold has been accepted as Aurora Kinase inhibitor sufficient evidence for prosecution in wildlife poaching cases (i.e., Lorenzini et al. 2011),

and is considered more appropriate find more for management cases given the lower rate of false exclusion of the true identity than the more stringent qi = 0.999 threshold required by other wildlife forensic cases (Manel et al. 2002, Millions and Swanson 2006). In GeneClass2, the Bayesian method of Rannala and Mountain (1997) was implemented to assign the putative Hector’s dolphins to the reference data set described above, using an alpha of 0.01 as evidence of origin. Additionally, Paetkau et al.’s (2004) permutation procedure was implemented with 1,000 simulated individuals and a threshold of P < 0.01 to exclude populations as an individual’s origin, as is used in other wildlife applications (Berry and Kirkwood 2010, Drewry et al. 2012). A total of 76 samples were collected within the Maui’s dolphin distribution on the northwest coast of the North Island between 2010 and 2012. Of these, 73 were collected from living dolphins during the 2010 and 2011 surveys (Oremus et al. 2012), and 3 were provided to us from recovered dolphin carcasses: Chem10NZ06 collected on 20 November 2010 floating off Raglan, Che11NZ06 collected on 26 October 2011 at Clark’s Beach in Manukau Harbour, and Che12NZ02 collected on 25 April 2012 at Opunake, Taranaki.