6%) were Italian citizens, 5 (1.7%) were European citizens, and 130 (44.7%) were extra-European citizens. Of the latter, 35 (27%) were recent immigrants from malaria-endemic areas and 95 (73%) settled immigrants traveling to their
country of origin (ie, visiting friends and relatives—VFRs). Extra-European patients originated from Africa (98, 75.3%), Asia (14, 10.7%), the Indian subcontinent (10, 7.7%), South-America (6, 4.6%), and the Middle-East (2, 1.5%). In more detail, African patients originated from 18 countries with Senegal (43, 43.8%), Nigeria (12, 12.2%), Dinaciclib nmr and Ivory Coast (7, 7.1%) being the most represented. All patients acquired malaria while traveling or living in malaria-endemic areas. The median duration of travel for tourism was 21 days (range
6–61 d ) for Italian or European citizens and was significantly shorter than the period spent in malaria-endemic areas by VFRs (35 d, range 15–189 d) (p < 0.001). Overall, 61 of 258 (23.6%) subjects reported using Obeticholic Acid cell line chemoprophylaxis, but only 32 had taken an appropriate and well-followed chemoprophylaxis. Use of chemoprophylaxis was much more frequent among Italian travelers (53/146, 36%) than among extra-European immigrant subjects (8/112, 7.1%; p < 0.001). Of those fully compliant with chemoprophylaxis use, the regimens consisted of mefloquine (18/36, 56.2%), chloroquine plus proguanil (7/32, 21.8%), and chloroquine alone (7/32, 21.9%). Thirteen patients taking mefloquine chemoprophylaxis suffered from malaria caused by P vivax (8 cases) or Plasmodium ovale (5 cases), and five by P falciparum malaria (acquired in Kenya, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Benin, and Senegal). Malaria was caused by P falciparum in 228 (78.3%) patients, P vivax in 48 (16.5%) patients,
P ovale in 9 (3.1%) patients, P malariae in 1 (0.3%) patient; 5 (1.7%) patients had mixed infections (four P falciparum + P malariae; one P falciparum + P vivax). In our series, patients with P falciparum infections were much more likely to have been exposed in Africa than were patients with non-falciparum infections (222, 96.5% vs 26, 44.8%; p < 0.0001). All cases of P ovale malaria were acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Fifty-four percent of P vivax infections were acquired in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia; twenty-three percent each were acquired in sub-Saharan Africa (3 in west Africa, 7 in east Sitaxentan Africa) or Central–South America. The median time from arrival in Italy to the onset of symptoms was significantly longer for non-falciparum malaria as opposed to P falciparum malaria (73 d vs 6 d; p < 0.001). The median time from symptoms’ onset to diagnosis was 3 days (range 0–47 d), with a statistically significant difference between P falciparum (3 d, range 0–10 d) and non-falciparum (5 d, range 0–47 d) malaria (p = 0.001).The most common symptoms reported at the time of the initial positive smear were fever (278, 95.5%), chills (173, 59.5%), headache (161, 55.3%), and arthralgias/myalgias (137, 47.