, 2007) First identified in the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tume

, 2007). First identified in the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens,

these polysaccharides are essential for survival and infection in several Eukaryote – microbe interactions including legume-rhizobia symbioses between Sinorhizobium meliloti, Sinorhizobium fredii, Mesorhizobium loti, and their respective host legumes (Dylan et al., 1986; Geremia et al., 1987; Ielpi et al., 1990; Bhagwat et al., 1992; Breedveld & Miller, 1994; D’Antuono et al., 2005; Crespo-Rivas et al., 2009). CβG of Brucella abortus are essential for intracellular survival and replication by preventing phagosome–lysosome fusions (Arellano-Reynoso et al., 2005). In a similar fashion, CβG produced by the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) are necessary for bacterial survival on tobacco leaves where they suppress systemic learn more plant immune responses (Rigano et al., 2007). In S. meliloti, NdvB and NdvA are responsible for CβG synthesis and translocation to the periplasmic

space, respectively, roles that are essential for nodulation (Breedveld & Miller, 1994). The effects of mutated ndvA and ndvB may not be direct however and could be related to a combination of pleiotropic disturbances associated with the absence of CβG, hypo-osmotic adaptation, motility, attachment BTK inhibitor in vitro and infection (Dylan et al., 1990). As CβG are present in bacteroids (Gore & Miller, 1993) of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, CβG might also be important within functional nodules. Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) sp. strain NGR234 (hereafter

NGR234) has the largest known host range of legumes (Pueppke & Broughton, 1999). NGR234 synthesizes cyclic β-1,2-glucans, and previous chemical analyses showed that more than 90% of CβG are substituted with anionic sn-1-phosphoglycerol residues (Batley et al., 1987). In this study, the NGR234 cyclic glucan synthase encoded by ndvB was identified and functionally characterized by mutational analysis to observe its role on nodule formation.. The strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table 1. Escherichia coli strains were grown at 37 °C in Luria–Bertani medium (Sambrook et al., 1989). NGR234 and derivative strains were grown at 27 °C in tryptone/yeast medium (TY) (Beringer, 1974) or in the hypo-osmotic minimal GYM medium (Dylan et al., 1986) to which NaCl was added at final concentrations of 25, 50, or 100 mM. If necessary, antibiotics were added to the media at the following Cediranib (AZD2171) concentrations: gentamycin (Gm) and tetracycline (Tc), 20 μg mL−1; kanamycin (Km) and spectinomycin (Sp), 50 μg mL−1; rifampicin (Rif), 100 μg mL−1. To generate the ndvB mutant, a fragment of 2779 bp was amplified by PCR using the specific primers (5′-CTGCCGCATACCAGGAAGGG-3′ and 5′-TCGTCAGGCTGAAGATGTAAGG-3′) and cloned into the SmaI site of pBluescript KS(+), creating pGF01. The fragment cloned included 290 bp of the upstream intergenic space and 2489 bp of the 5′ end of ndvB. An Ω interposon conferring spectinomycin resistance was excised from pHP45Ω (Fellay et al.

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