18 With over 80% of our study population traveling with their parents to nonindustrialized countries and 20% reporting having experienced illness or injury during travel, it seems of interest to study the adults who travel with children and whether their risk-taking attitudes are associated with seeking pretravel advice prior to their trip and how that affects the younger children who travel with them. There are several limitations to this study. First, the size of the studied sample did not allow for in-depth investigation into further Opaganib chemical structure associations between travel reasons, travel without parents, illness/injury experienced during travel, travel vaccines/medicines, and destination region in relation to risk-taking
attitudes. Second, because the vaccination data are self-reported information, accuracy cannot be confirmed. However, some studies have suggested that as many as 25% of patients who report receiving immunizations
may actually not have received them.19 Finally, participation in the survey was voluntary and was not mailed more than once to increase the response rate nor the results previously validated, indicating that respondents might have different demographic characteristics and travel behavior from nonrespondents, and might EPZ015666 purchase not be representative of the general US population. Recall bias and sensitivity to some items may also be reflected in the responses. This study provides exploratory findings in areas where little research has been conducted. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II Females and those who have a higher household income were more likely to travel, and one fifth of respondents reported experiencing illness or injury during travel. Those who traveled to a nonindustrialized country had a higher mean sensation-seeking score than those who did not, and although not significantly
different, those who did not seek pretravel medical care also had a higher mean sensation-seeking score, showing a suggestive link regarding youth travel behavior that should be further explored in a larger study to confirm our findings. Adult supervision during travel and parental plans and directives prior to travel should be taken into consideration. Knowing that pretravel advice is a precautionary measure taken to keep travelers healthy, communication messages should be directed toward parents of children who are traveling and the importance of pretravel advice to prevent health problems. These messages should be communicated through family doctors, as they are one of the main sources where travelers seek pretravel medical care. The area of youth travel, specifically those under age 18, needs to be explored more, especially when linked with travel with or without adult supervision. The authors thank Nina Marano, Emad Yanni, and Amanda Whatley for their assistance in survey question development, and William Pollard for his assistance with the YouthStyles database.